Posts Tagged ‘risk’

New method for reducing tumorigenicity in induced pluripotent stem-cell based therapies

July 24th, 2014

PUBLIC RELEASE DATE:

23-Jul-2014

Contact: Kathryn Ruehle kruehle@liebertpub.com 914-740-2100 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News

New Rochelle, NY — The potential for clinical use of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for transplant-based therapeutic strategies has previously been hindered by the risk of dysregulated cell growth, specifically the development of tumors. The ability to use etoposide treatment to halt teratoma formation in iPSCs for the treatment of heart disease, specifically acute myocardial infarction, is demonstrated in an article in Stem Cells and Development, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the Stem Cells and Development website.

In the article ‘Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II selectively reduces the threat of tumorigenicity following induced pluripotent stem cell-based myocardial therapy’ Saranya Wyles, Andre Terzic, Timothy Nelson, and coauthors, Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN), discovered a strategy that alone or in conjunction with other methods could significantly reduce the risk of a tumorigenic event occurring. Their work demonstrates how pretreatment with genotoxic etoposide significantly lowered the threat of abnormal growths by removing the contaminated pluripotent cells and establishing an adjunctive therapy to further harness the clinical value of iPSC-derived cardiac regeneration.

“For anyone seeking to exploit iPSC technology in a clinical setting, the Mayo Clinic has described a strategy that significantly mitigates the risk of tumor development. Furthermore, the paper provides benchmark strategies for assessing the localization and persistence of cell-based treatments in a preclinical model,” says Editor-in-Chief Graham C. Parker, PhD, The Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI.

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About the Journal

Stem Cells and Development is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published 24 times per year in print and online. The Journal is dedicated to communication and objective analysis of developments in the biology, characteristics, and therapeutic utility of stem cells, especially those of the hematopoietic system. Complete tables of content and a free sample issue may be viewed on the Stem Cells and Development website.

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New method for reducing tumorigenicity in induced pluripotent stem-cell based therapies

Fat cells removed from heart attack patients could be re-injected into their chest to help repair the organ …

July 5th, 2014

By Ben Spencer

Published: 09:48 EST, 4 July 2014 | Updated: 10:20 EST, 4 July 2014

Fat removed from a heart attack patient during cardiac surgery could be re-injected into their chest to lower the risk of repeat problems, research suggests.

Scientists think that stem cells in fatty tissue could be extracted and inserted directly into the heart, reducing the chance of future attacks.

The stem cells – blank cells capable of acting as a repair kit for the body by replacing worn-out tissue – can improve the functioning of the heart and strengthen crucial arteries and veins, the researchers found.

Usually most of the fat that is found during open heart surgery is removed and then discarded.

Scientists believe fat removed from a heart attack patient during cardiac surgery could be re-injected into their chest to lower the risk of repeat problems. Stock image

But the new study suggests that the fat could be retained and the useful stem cells isolated and injected back into the heart – all while the patient is still on the operating table.

Canadian cardiologist Dr Ganghong Tian, who will present his findings at a European Society of Cardiology conference in Barcelona tomorrow (Sunday), said: During cardiac surgery fat tissue may need to be removed from patients to expose the heart.

We were intrigued to find out whether this mediastinal fat, which would otherwise be discarded, contained stem cells that could be injected back into the heart before closing the chest.

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Fat cells removed from heart attack patients could be re-injected into their chest to help repair the organ …

The Vitamin That Isnt A Vitamin And Why You Need It

April 9th, 2014

vitamin-d_3by Tracy Smith

Technically, Vitamin D is not a true vitamin because, under the right circumstances, the body can synthesize its own using sunlight and cholesterol. It ‘s really a steroid hormone that strongly affects gene expression and resistance to multiple diseases. It ‘s vitally necessary for life and health, and new discoveries show that it ‘s more important for vibrant, youthful health than we ever thought before. Vitamin D deficiency is chronic around the world, even in developed countries. It ‘s estimated that the incidence of many cancers could be cut in half if we all got enough of this important nutrient. (ILLUSTRATION: Vitamin D3 is often available in gel caplet form.)

Humans and, in fact, most mammals create their own Vitamin D when exposed to direct sunlight. But, because excessive exposure to the Sun is known to increase the risk of skin cancer, doctors generally don ‘t recommend being out in the sunlight as a way to get adequate Vitamin D. Instead, supplements are called for.

Vitamin D, in its D3 form known to chemists as cholecalciferol (don ‘t worry, I won ‘t force you to pronounce it!), is absolutely necessary for health. It was first discovered over a century ago when doctors were trying to find a cure for rickets, a serious bone disease that often affects children. It was noticed that this disease started to become much more common during the Industrial Revolution, when large numbers of people moved from the countryside and outdoors work to polluted cities where they worked in dark, dingy factories. Scientists also found that those living in warm, sunny places were much less likely to contract rickets than those living in cloudy, northern, high-latitude climates. Eventually it was discovered that Sun exposure or the taking of cod liver oil could absolutely prevent the disease, proving it to be a deficiency disease, meaning that it is not caused by a virus or other microorganism, but by a simple lack of something essential in the victim ‘s diet. That “something ” proved to be Vitamin D.

Vitamin D deficiency is very common. A study in France showed that fully 14 percent of otherwise healthy adults had extremely low levels of Vitamin D. Another study, this one of medical professionals living in New England, indicated that 42 percent of them had a Vitamin D deficiency by the end of Winter among those who did not take D3 supplements. But among those who did supplement their diet with D3, the deficiency rate was only 11 percent!

It ‘s pretty clear that without enough of this vitamin, you can get very sick indeed. And it ‘s also clear that many of us, in fact, aren ‘t getting enough. But there ‘s a lot more to Vitamin D3 than preventing rickets. The vitamin has anti-aging and anti-inflammatory aspects, and it has been shown to positively affect your mental outlook, too, helping to combat depression. Vitamin D3 can even help improve the lifespan and survival of the neurons which make up your brain and nervous system. Let ‘s take a look at what it can do for you!

One of the major problems faced by older women is osteoporosis, which greatly increases the risk of bone fractures and hip fractures late in life can sometimes amount to a death sentence. In a study commissioned by the Women ‘s Health Initiative, it was found that women on a Vitamin D3 and calcium carbonate supplementation program had 12 percent fewer hip fractures that women taking a placebo. These effects were seen on fairly high doses of D3 over 800 IU per day.

Vitamin D3 boosts your immune system and your body ‘s ability to fight off all kinds of diseases. Immune system cells have structures with Vitamin D receptors, and it ‘s been shown that being deficient in this vitamin increases your risk of of infection generally and especially increases your risk of autoimmune diseases.

Vitamin D3 helps your body fight off viral respiratory infections.

Vitamin D3 also has been shown to be beneficial in helping your body fight off the flu.

Vitamin D3 can help your body fight off tuberculosis.

In 2010, a presentation at the American College of Cardiology showed that patients with low Vitamin D levels who were suffering from the leading cause of death among human beings worldwide cardiovascular disease were about 30 percent less likely to die if they took Vitamin D3 supplementation.

Studies suggest that Vitamin D has a role in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells: Even though high sunlight exposure increases the risk of skin cancer (and a few other kinds), a large number of cancers have a risk profile that is actually decreased with large amounts of sun exposure (which increases the body ‘s own Vitamin D production). Hodgkin ‘s lymphoma and myeloma, cancers of the small intestine, pancreas, and kidneys; as well as cancer of the colon, bladder, vulva, uterus, stomach, rectum, and prostate all have this inverse relationship with sun exposure and Vitamin D production.

Vitamin D also evidently has a role in reducing the incidence of Parkinson ‘s and Alzheimer ‘s diseases: 41 percent of Alzheimer ‘s patients and fully 55 percent of Parkinson ‘s disease patients were found to be deficient in Vitamin D.

Among Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients, Vitamin D3 supplementation was found to both decrease the number of lesions and increase the ability to walk and perform daily tasks. It ‘s also been discovered that relapses are more common among victims of MS who are deficient in Vitamin D. And it has long been observed that the incidence of Multiple Sclerosis decreases the closer you get to the equator, where there is more exposure to the Sun and hence more natural Vitamin D production.

Vitamin D3 taken in combination with calcium has been shown to decrease mortality in the elderly by some nine percent.

Some call Vitamin D the

Some call Vitamin D the “sunlight vitamin ” because our bodies synthesize it naturally when we are exposed to direct sunlight. The only danger is that too much sunlight isn ‘t good for you it can increase your risk of skin cancer. So be careful!

One way to insure you ‘re getting enough Vitamin D is the natural way: Sun exposure. But you have to be careful with this approach, since more than 15 minutes a day of direct, unscreened sunlight on your skin has been shown to increase your chances of developing skin cancer. But getting five to ten minutes a day, two to three times every week, of direct sunlight on your arms, hands, and face should be safe, and should also be enough to prevent any deficiency in the vitamin, according to experts.

The body can also absorb extra Vitamin D if you eat certain foods. Making sure you consume fat-containing fish, like eel, catfish, tuna, salmon, mackerel, and sardines can help. If you ‘re a vegetarian, cereals, cheese, fortified milk, and egg yolk are also rich in the nutrient.

The United States Institute of Medicine has established a recommended daily intake of Vitamin D3 at 600 IU (International Units) for those 70 and under and 800 IU daily for those 71 and up. The International Osteoporosis Foundation recommends even more, suggesting that Vitamin D levels that require a daily intake of 800 to 1000 IU daily are more appropriate.

Much higher doses can be taken safely, too, but don ‘t ever get close to 300,000 IU in any 24-hour period or 10,000 IU per day for three months or more: such doses can be toxic. Remember that too much of anything, even the most harmless things like water, can be harmful.

Unlike drugs, Vitamin D is a natural compound one that your body needs and one that your body also makes itself every time you go out in the Sun. You need it, and, thanks to modern technology, you can easily and inexpensively make sure you ‘re getting the maximum benefit possible from this health-boosting and life-improving nutrient the vitamin that isn ‘t really a vitamin!

REFERENCES

Tangpricha V, Pearce EN, et al. “Vitamin D insufficiency among free-living healthy young adults. ” Am J Med. 2002; 112:659-62
Mohr, S.B. “A brief history of vitamin D and cancer prevention. ” Annals Epidemio. 2009 Feb; 19(2):79-83

Schleithoff S.S., et al. “Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. ” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2006 Apr; 83:4, 754-759

Holick, M.F. “Sunlight and vitamin D for bone health and prevention of autoimmune diseases, cancers, and cardiovascular disease. ” Am. Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2004 Dec; 80(6 Suppl):1678S-88S

Regulska M, et al. “Involvement of PI3-K in neuroprotective effects of the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 analogue PRI-2191. ” Pharmacol. Reports. 2006 Nov; 58:6,900-907

Jackson RD, et al. “Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures. ” New England Journal of Medicine. 2006;354:669-83

Aranow, C. “Vitamin D and the immune system. ” Journal of Investig. Medicine. 2011 Aug;59(6):881-6

Evatt, M.L., et al. “Prevalence of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Patients With Parkinson Disease and Alzheimer Disease. ” Arch Neurol. 2008; 65(10):1348-1352

Rejnmark, L., et al. “Vitamin D with Calcium Reduces Mortality: Patient Level Pooled Analysis of 70,528 Patients from Eight Major Vitamin D Trials. ” Journ. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2012 May 17

Vitamin D Council, “Am I getting too much Vitamin D? “, http://www.vitamindcouncil.org/about-vitamin-d/am-i-getting-too-much-vitamin-d/, retrieved 22 March, 2014

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The Vitamin That Isnt A Vitamin And Why You Need It

New Hope for Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine Emerges From the Lab

December 18th, 2013

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Newswise Today, December 17, JoVE, the Journal of Visualized Experiments, has published a novel technique that could resolve a snag in stem cell research for application in regenerative medicinea strategy for reprograming cells in vivo to act like stem cells that forgoes the risk of causing tumors.

Dr. Kostas Kostarelos, principal investigator of the Nanomedicine Lab at the University of Manchester, said that he and his colleagues have discovered a safe approach to reprogramming somatic cells (which constitute most of the cells in the body) into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Research in this field has been embraced as an alternative to the controversial use of embryonic stem cells.

We have induced somatic cells within the liver of adult mice to transiently behave as pluripotent stem cells, said Dr. Kostas Kostarelos, the labs principal investigator, This was done by transfer of four specific genes, previously described by the Nobel-prize winning Shinya Yamanaka, without the use of viruses but simply plasmid DNA [a small circular, double-stranded piece of DNA used for manipulating gene expression in a cell].

The technique comes as an alternative to Dr. Shinya Yamanakas reprograming methods, which won him the Nobel prize in 2012. Dr. Yamanakas approach involved reprogramming somatic cells in vitro by introducing four genes through the use of a virus. While promising, the use of this method has been limited. As Dr. Kostareloss article states, One of the central dogmas of this emerging field is that in vivo implantation of [these stem] cells will lead to their uncontrolled differentiation and the formation of a tumor-like mass.

Dr. Kostarelos and his team have determined that their technique does not share the risk of uncontrolled stem cell growth into tumors as seen in in vitro, viral-based methods. [This is the] only experimental technique to report the in vivo reprogramming of adult somatic cells to pluripotency using non-viral, transient, rapid and safe methods, Kostarelos said.

The Nanomedicine Labs approach involves injecting large volumes of plasmid DNA to reprogram cells. However, because plasmid DNA is short-lived in this scenario, the risk of uncontrolled growth is reduced.

The research group chose to publish their technique with JoVE as a means to emphasize the novelty, uniqueness and simplicity of their procedure. Along with their article, a demonstration of their technique has been published as a peer-reviewed video to ensure the proper replication of this technique by other researchers in the field.

*** About JoVE, the Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE, the Journal of Visualized Experiments, is the first and only PubMed/MEDLINE-indexed, peer-reviewed journal devoted to publishing scientific research in a video format. Using an international network of videographers, JoVE films and edits videos of researchers performing new experimental techniques at top universities, allowing students and scientists to learn them much more quickly. As of December 2013, JoVE has published video-protocols from an international community of more than 9,300 authors in the fields of biology, medicine, chemistry, and physics.

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New Hope for Stem Cells, Regenerative Medicine Emerges From the Lab

Stem Cells Made From Cloned Embryos, Now What? – Video

May 18th, 2013



Stem Cells Made From Cloned Embryos, Now What?
Researchers say the possibility of cloning tissue can help fight health problems, but others question the risk it brings of cloning humans.

By: NewsyScience

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Stem Cells Made From Cloned Embryos, Now What? – Video

Cells Extracted From Urine – Video

December 13th, 2012



Cells Extracted From Urine
Scientists develop ways to extract cells from urine. Cells from urine can be used instead of embryonic stem cells to produce neurons in the brain. This method may be used in the future to treat neurological disorders like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Stem-cell biologist Duanqing Pei along with researchers from Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health in China has shown that kidney cells from urine can be turned into neural progenitor cells. Embryonic stem cells are unstable and run the risk of turning into noncancerous tumors. The researchers cultured the urine cells with bacterial DNA, which might be a way to lower the risk of tumors. The benefits of using the urine stem cells rather than embryonic or non-embryonic stem cells is that this noninvasive method can collect samples from patients more easily, the danger of the neurons from the urine samples producing tumor cells is lower and the process of making them in a lab is more efficient for neural cells. Scientists have found that stem cells used to treat neurological disorders can be effective when snorted rather than being transplanted through invasive surgery. There are currently no FDA approved stem cell treatments for neurological disorders.From:GeoBeatsNewsViews:1 0ratingsTime:01:11More inNews Politics

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Cells Extracted From Urine – Video

'Fountain of youth' technique rejuvenates aging stem cells

November 28th, 2012

ScienceDaily (Nov. 27, 2012) A new method of growing cardiac tissue is teaching old stem cells new tricks. The discovery, which transforms aged stem cells into cells that function like much younger ones, may one day enable scientists to grow cardiac patches for damaged or diseased hearts from a patient’s own stem cells — no matter what age the patient — while avoiding the threat of rejection.

Stem cell therapies involving donated bone marrow stem cells run the risk of patient rejection in a portion of the population, argues Milica Radisic, Canada Research Chair in Functional Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering at the Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and Associate Professor in the Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry at the University of Toronto.

One method of avoiding the risk of rejection has been to use cells derived from a patient’s own body. But until now, clinical trials of this kind of therapy using elderly patients’ own cells have not been a viable option, since aged cells tend not to function as well as cells from young patients.

“If you want to treat these people with their own cells, how do you do this?”

It’s a problem that Radisic and her co-researcher, Dr. Ren-Ke Li, think they might have an answer for: by creating the conditions for a ‘fountain of youth’ reaction within a tissue culture.

Li holds the Canada Research Chair in Cardiac Regeneration and is a Professor in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, cross-appointed to IBBME. He is also a Senior Scientist at the Toronto General Research Institute.

Radisic and Li first create a “micro-environment” that allows heart tissue to grow, with stem cells donated from elderly patients at the Toronto General Hospital.

The cell cultures are then infused with a combination of growth factors — common factors that cause blood vessel growth and cell proliferation — positioned in such a way within the porous scaffolding that the cells are able to be stimulated by these factors.

Dr. Li and his team then tracked the molecular changes in the tissue patch cells. “We saw certain aging factors turned off,” states Li, citing the levels of two molecules in particular, p16 and RGN, which effectively turned back the clock in the cells, returning them to robust and healthy states.

“It’s very exciting research,” says Radisic, who was named one of the top innovators under 35 by MIT in 2008 and winner of the 2012 Young Engineers Canada award.

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'Fountain of youth' technique rejuvenates aging stem cells

A look at stem cells and their current use

September 5th, 2012

Dear Dr. Donohue Since starting to clip your articles, I haven’t found any that deal with using adult stem cells for breakthrough treatments, such as repairing heart damage. Could they help if one needs an aortic valve replacement? A.R.

Answer Stem cells are primitive cells that have the potential of spawning mature cells that carry out specific bodily functions, like skin cells, liver cells, lung cells, heart muscle cells, and on and on. Embryonic stem cells have the greatest potential for differentiating into any of the many varieties of cells that make up all body organs, structures and tissues.

Hematopoietic stem cells are recovered from the bone marrow and, to a lesser extent, the circulating blood. They have been and are being used to restore the bone marrow’s capability of generating blood cells.

At the present time, no stem cell therapy has been used in replacing a heart valve.

Dear Dr. Donohue I would like to know the risk of having a stroke when a carotid artery has a blockage. I was told that doctors don’t go by percentage of blockage now. How is the risk determined? K.C.

Answer An obstruction in the carotid artery, the neck artery that supplies the brain with blood, is not the only cause of a stroke. A piece of a blood clot that has broken off of a main clot elsewhere in the body and been swept into a brain artery is another cause of stroke. I mention this to keep it clear that a blocked carotid is but one risk for a stroke.

The doctors I know still use percentage of reduction in the interior of a carotid artery as a criterion of stroke risk. With a 60 percent to 70 percent or greater narrowing of the carotid artery, people benefit from the opening up of the artery, using a variety of procedures. Some experts feel that a 60 percent narrowing requires only blood-thinning medication, such as aspirin. Others feel that surgical removal of the blockage is indicated.

Other factors have to be considered: the patient’s age, the patient’s wishes and the patient’s health problems unrelated to the artery problem..

Dear Dr. Donohue I am an 85-year-old female, and my doctor has suggested a colonoscopy. I find it a degrading test. The doctor didn’t say why I needed it. Should a woman my age have it? K.C.

Answer The American College of Physicians recommends against screening colonoscopies for people 75 and older or for those people with a life expectancy of less than 10 years. Some add that screening can be stopped only if prior colonoscopies have been normal. No one I know recommends screening at 85.

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A look at stem cells and their current use

OMICS Group :: Journal of Stem Cell Research

June 8th, 2012


07-06-2012 07:52 Stem cells differ from other types of cells as they are unspecialized cells that are capable of differentiating into almost any type of specialised cells. Stem cells have the ability to replace the diseased and damaged tissue in the body, without the risk of rejection and any side effects. Therapy performed using stem cells is termed as “Regenerative medicine” and has many potential benefits in treating a wide variety of diseases and injuries. The journal is the major open access forum for translational research in stem cell therapies.

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OMICS Group :: Journal of Stem Cell Research

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics To Present at Targeting Stem Cells Symposium during 19th Annual Molecular Medicine Tri …

February 17th, 2012

LOS ANGELES–(BUSINESS WIRE)–

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. (“ImmunoCellular” or the “Company”) (OTCBB: IMUC –News), a biotechnology company focused on the development of novel immune-based cancer therapies, today announced that John Yu, MD, Chairman and Chief Scientific Officer of ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, will deliver a presentation at the Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s inaugural Targeting Stem Cells Symposium as a part of the 19th Annual Molecular Medicine Tri-Conference from February 19-23, 2012. Dr. Yu will present during a session highlighting Emerging Cancer Stem Cell Therapeutics, featuring the Company’s discovery and development of cancer stem cell therapy.

The Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s Targeting Cancer Stem Cells Symposium reflects a growing interest in cancer stem cells and their developing importance in the field of oncology, as more pharmaceutical and biotech companies have begun to focus on cancer stem cells as oncological drug targets. The symposium will feature case studies from those working with cancer stem cells, a history of the role of cancer stem cells in treatment resistance, as well as highlights from ongoing novel cancer stem cell therapeutic development programs and platforms.

About ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.

IMUC is a Los Angeles-based clinical-stage company that is developing immune-based therapies for the treatment of brain and other cancers. The Company recently commenced a Phase II trial of its lead product candidate, ICT-107, a dendritic cell-based vaccine targeting multiple tumor associated antigens including those associated with cancer stem cells for glioblastoma treatment. To learn more about IMUC, please visit www.imuc.com.

Forward-Looking Statements

This press release contains certain forward-looking statements that are subject to a number of risks and uncertainties, including the risk that any patents issued covering IMUC’s vaccine technology will not provide significant commercial protection for IMUC’s technology or products; the risk that the safety and efficacy results obtained in the Phase I trial for the dendritic cell- based vaccine will not be confirmed in subsequent trials; the risk that the correlation between immunological response and progression-free and overall survival in the Phase I trial for ICT-107 will not be reflected in statistically significant larger patient populations; the risk that IMUC will not be able to secure a partner company for development or commercialization of ICT-107. Additional risks and uncertainties are described in IMUC's most recently filed SEC documents, such as its most recent annual report on Form 10-K, all quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and any current reports on Form 8-K. IMUC undertakes no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

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ImmunoCellular Therapeutics To Present at Targeting Stem Cells Symposium during 19th Annual Molecular Medicine Tri …

Stem Cell Therapy May Prevent Heart Failure: 4 Companies to Watch

November 17th, 2011

( Written by Alexander Crawford. Data sourced from Finviz.) A stem cell treatment for heart disease from Australia’s biotech firm Mesoblast Ltd lowered the risk of heart attack or cardiac

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Stem Cell Therapy May Prevent Heart Failure: 4 Companies to Watch


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